Introduction ::AustriaBackground:Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's ""perpetual neutrality"" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.Geography ::AustriaLocation:Central Europe, north of Italy and SloveniaGeographic coordinates:47 20 N, 13 20 EArea:total: 83,871 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 114land: 82,445 sq kmwater: 1,426 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than MaineLand boundaries:total: 2,562 kmborder countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showersTerrain:in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently slopingElevation extremes:lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 mhighest point: Grossglockner 3,798 mNatural resources:oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 16.25%permanent crops: 0.77%other: 82.98% (2011)Irrigated land:1,170 sq km (2007)Total renewable water resources:77.7 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 3.66 cu km/yr (18%/79%/3%)per capita: 452.4 cu m/yr (2008)Natural hazards:landslides; avalanches; earthquakesEnvironment - current issues:some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern EuropeEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewherePeople and Society ::AustriaNationality:noun: Austrian(s)adjective: AustrianEthnic groups:Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)Languages:German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 census)Religions:Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)Population:8,221,646 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 94Age structure:0-14 years: 13.7% (male 577,390/female 550,496)15-24 years: 11.8% (male 494,324/female 474,171)25-54 years: 43.1% (male 1,779,534/female 1,766,779)55-64 years: 12.5% (male 506,419/female 520,552)65 years and over: 18.9% (male 656,883/female 895,098) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 48.9 %youth dependency ratio: 21.6 %elderly dependency ratio: 27.3 %potential support ratio: 3.7 (2013)Median age:total: 43.9 yearsmale: 42.8 yearsfemale: 44.9 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:0.02% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 191Birth rate:8.73 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 214Death rate:10.31 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 45Net migration rate:1.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 46Urbanization:urban population: 68% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:VIENNA (capital) 1.72 million (2011)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:28.5 (2011 est.)Maternal mortality rate:4 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 179Infant mortality rate:total: 4.21 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 196male: 5.09 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 80.04 yearscountry comparison to the world: 33male: 77.13 yearsfemale: 83.1 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.42 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 201Contraceptive prevalence rate:69.6%note: percent of women aged 18-46 (2009)Health expenditures:11% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 21Physicians density:4.75 physicians/1,000 population (2009)Hospital bed density:7.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.3% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 84HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:15,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 85HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 100 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 124Obesity - adult prevalence rate:20.9% (2008)country comparison to the world: 93Education expenditures:6% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 39Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 98%male: NAfemale: NASchool life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 yearsmale: 15 yearsfemale: 16 years (2011)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 8.3%country comparison to the world: 118male: 7.9%female: 8.8% (2011)Government ::AustriaCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Austriaconventional short form: Austrialocal long form: Republik Oesterreichlocal short form: OesterreichGovernment type:federal republicCapital:name: Viennageographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)Independence:12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed)National holiday:National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutralityConstitution:1 October 1920; revised 1929; reinstated 1 May 1945; revised many times; note - during the period 1 May 1934-1 May 1945 there was a fascist (corporative) constitution in placeLegal system:civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional CourtInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:16 years of age; universal; note - reduced from 18 years of age in 2007Executive branch:chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) (since 8 July 2004)head of government: Chancellor Werner FAYMANN (SPOe) (since 2 December 2008); Vice Chancellor Michael SPINDELEGGER (OeVP) (since 21 April 2011)cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected for a six-year term (eligible for a second term) by direct popular vote and formally sworn into office before the Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung; presidential election last held on 25 April 2010 (next to be held on 25 April 2016); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellorelection results: Heinz FISCHER reelected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 79.33%, Barbara ROSENKRANZ 15.24%, Rudolf GEHRING 5.43%note: government coalition - SPOe and OeVPLegislative branch:bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; delegates appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve five- or six-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by popular vote for a five-year term under a system of proportional representation with partially-open party lists)elections: National Council - last held on 28 September 2008 (next to be held by September 2013)election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 29.3%, OeVP 26%, FPOe 17.5%, BZOe 10.7%, Greens 10.4%, other 6.1%; seats by party - SPOe 57, OeVP 51, FPOe 34, BZOe 21, Greens 20; note - seats by party since 2012 - SPOe 56, OeVP 51, FPOe 34, Greens 20, BZOe 13, Stronach 5, other 4Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of five judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the presidentsubordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Josef BUCHER]Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Michael SPINDELEGGER]Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Werner FAYMANN]The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]""Team Stronach for Austria"" [Frank STRONACH]Political pressure groups and leaders:Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)Federal Economic ChamberLabor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IVRoman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Actionother: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rightsInternational organization participation:ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCDiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Hans Peter MANZchancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035telephone:  (202) 895-6700FAX:  (202) 895-6750consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador William C. EACHO IIIembassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Viennamailing address: use embassy street addresstelephone:  (1) 31339-0FAX:  (1) 3100682Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his bannerNational symbol(s):golden eagleNational anthem:name: ""Bundeshymne"" (Federal Hymn)lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as ""Land der Berge, Land am Strome"" (Land of the Mountains, Land on the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was now associated with the Nazi regimeEconomy ::AustriaEconomy - overview:Austria, with its well-developed market economy, skilled labor force, and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Following several years of solid foreign demand for Austrian exports and record employment growth, the international financial crisis of 2008 and subsequent global economic downturn led to a sharp but brief recession. Austrian GDP contracted 3.8% in 2009 but saw positive growth of about 2% in 2010 and 2.7% in 2011. Growth fell to 0.6% in 2012. Unemployment did not rise as steeply in Austria as elsewhere in Europe, partly because the government subsidized reduced working hour schemes to allow companies to retain employees. The 2012 unemployment rate of 4.3% was the lowest within the EU. Stabilization measures, stimulus spending, and an income tax reform pushed the budget deficit to 4.5% in 2010 and 2.6% in 2011, from only about 0.9% in 2008. The international financial crisis of 2008 caused difficulties for Austria's largest banks whose extensive operations in central, eastern, and southeastern Europe faced large losses. The government provided bank support - including in some instances, nationalization - to support aggregate demand and stabilize the banking system. Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries, but it faces external risks, such as Austrian banks' continued exposure to Central and Eastern Europe as well as political and economic uncertainties caused by the European sovereign debt crisis. In 2011 the government attempted to pass a constitutional amendment limiting public debt to 60% of GDP by 2020, but it was unable to obtain sufficient support in parliament and instead passed the measure as a simple law. In March 2012, the Austrian parliament approved an austerity package consisting of a mix of expenditure cuts and new revenues that will bring public finances into balance by 2016. In 2012, the budget deficit rose to 3.1% of GDP.GDP (purchasing power parity):$364.9 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 38$362.1 billion (2011 est.)$352.6 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$398.6 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:0.8% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1662.7% (2011 est.)2.1% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$43,100 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 21$43,000 (2011 est.)$42,000 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:25.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 4325.2% of GDP (2011 est.)25.7% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 54.5%government consumption: 18.8%investment in fixed capital: 21.5%investment in inventories: 1.8%exports of goods and services: 57.1%imports of goods and services: -53.7%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 1.5%industry: 30.1%services: 68.4% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumberIndustries:construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourismIndustrial production growth rate:1.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 109Labor force:3.726 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 94Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 5.5%industry: 26%services: 68.5% (2012 est.)Unemployment rate:4.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 384.2% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:6.2% (2012)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 4%highest 10%: 22% (2011)Distribution of family income - Gini index:26.3 (2007)country comparison to the world: 12831 (1995)Budget:revenues: $193.8 billionexpenditures: $206.2 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:48.6% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 16Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-3.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 121Public debt:73.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 3472.5% of GDP (2011 est.)note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year pricesFiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):2.6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 673.5% (2011 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:2.5% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1772.95% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$201 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 19$176.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own bordersStock of broad money:$426.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 25$400.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$543.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 25$526.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$100.4 billion (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 43$88.6 billion (31 December 2011)$120.7 billion (31 December 2010)Current account balance:$8.09 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 27$7.242 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$160.1 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 31$169.9 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffsExports - partners:Germany 31.4%, Italy 7%, France 4.7%, Switzerland 4.5%, US 4.4% (2012)Imports:$163.2 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 30$175.4 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffsImports - partners:Germany 42.1%, Italy 6.6%, Switzerland 5.1% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$27.21 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 54$25.16 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$808.1 billion (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 19$786.1 billion (31 December 2011)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$265.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 20$253.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$331.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 18$303.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:euros (EUR) per US dollar -0.7778 (2012 est.)0.7185 (2011 est.)0.755 (2010 est.)0.7198 (2009 est.)0.6827 (2008 est.)Energy ::AustriaElectricity - production:69 billion kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 40Electricity - consumption:63.8 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 40Electricity - exports:16.75 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 10Electricity - imports:24.98 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 7Electricity - installed generating capacity:21.11 million kW (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 35Electricity - from fossil fuels:27.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 183Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 42Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:59.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 32Electricity - from other renewable sources:12.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 18Crude oil - production:17,630 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 73Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 76Crude oil - imports:139,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 43Crude oil - proved reserves:85 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Refined petroleum products - production:159,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 64Refined petroleum products - consumption:210,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Refined petroleum products - exports:43,010 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 62Refined petroleum products - imports:117,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 43Natural gas - production:1.6 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 59Natural gas - consumption:9.27 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 49Natural gas - exports:4.96 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 31Natural gas - imports:14.28 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 20Natural gas - proved reserves:23.9 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:71 million Mt (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 46Communications ::AustriaTelephones - main lines in use:3.388 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 47Telephones - mobile cellular:13.023 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 60Telephone system:general assessment: highly developed and efficientdomestic: fixed-line subscribership has been in decline since the mid-1990s with mobile-cellular subscribership eclipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are availableinternational: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2007)Broadcast media:Austria's public broadcaster, Osterreichischer Rundfunk (ORF), was the main broadcast source until commercial radio and TV service was introduced in the 1990s; cable and satellite TV are available, including German TV stations (2008)Internet country code:.atInternet hosts:3.512 million (2012)country comparison to the world: 30Internet users:6.143 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 43Transportation ::AustriaAirports:52 (2013)country comparison to the world: 90Airports - with paved runways:total: 24over 3,047 m: 12,438 to 3,047 m: 51,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 4under 914 m: 13 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 281,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 3under 914 m:24 (2013)Heliports:1 (2013)Pipelines:gas 4,736 km; oil 663 km; refined products 157 km (2013)Railways:total: 6,399 kmcountry comparison to the world: 29standard gauge: 5,927 km 1.435-m gauge (3,853 km electrified)narrow gauge: 384 km 1.000-m gauge (15 km electrified); 88 km 0.760-m gauge (10 km electrified) (2008)Roadways:total: 124,508 kmcountry comparison to the world: 38paved: 124,508 km (includes 1,719 km of expressways) (2012)Waterways:358 km (2011)country comparison to the world: 90Merchant marine:registered in other countries: 3 (Cyprus 1, Kazakhstan 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)country comparison to the world: 137Ports and terminals:river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)Military ::AustriaMilitary branches:Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)Military service age and obligation:registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory service; males under the age of 35 must complete basic military training (6 month duration); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 1,941,110females age 16-49: 1,910,434 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,579,862females age 16-49: 1,554,130 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 48,108female: 45,752 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:0.8% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 151Transnational Issues ::AustriaDisputes - international:noneRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 19,517 (Russia); 10,158 (Afghanistan) (2012)stateless persons: 542 (2012)Illicit drugs:transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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